Climate change in india
Climate change in india
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Meaning of Climate Change
Climate change refers to large-scale long-term changes in the average weather conditions of any region or region. Generally these changes are studied by dividing the Earth’s history over long periods. These changes in climatic conditions can occur due to natural and anthropogenic reasons. The effect of this change can be regional as well as global.
Evidence of Climate Change
Since its origin on Earth, there have been many changes in climate. Evidence of these changes in the past is as follows
- Geological records reflect the process of change in Ice Ages and Inter-Ice Ages respectively.
- Remnant signs of moving and retracting the glaciers in high altitudes and high latitudes.
- • Deposition of sediments in glacial formed lakes reveals the occurrence of hot and cold ages. In this sequence, it is noteworthy that the Earth was warm during the Cambrian, Ardovician and Silurian eras.
- Ring found in the trunks of trees also indicate the presence of humid and dry ages.
- All these evidences indicate that climate change is a continuous process, which has been occurring in all periods.
Causes Of Climate change
The two main reasons for climate change are natural and human
1. Solar stigma increases with the number of dark spots on the sun, the weather becomes cold and wet and the number of storms increases, while the number decreases, causing hot and dry conditions.
2.Milankovich oscillation theory This theory explains climate change based on the decrease and increase in the amount of insolation the Earth receives based on changes in the orbital characteristics of the Earth around the Sun or changes in the Earth’s axial inclination etc. .
3.Volcanic activity by it reduces the amount of sunsets coming to Earth. After the recent Pinatoba and El Seoul volcanic eruptions, the Earth’s average temperature had dropped to some extent.
4.The principle of change in the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, the amount of carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, methane, climate etc. changes continuously in the atmosphere. Ever since the Industrial Revolution, the use of petroleum, coal and natural gas has increased, there has been a rapid change in the composition of atmospheric gases, which has become a factor of climate change.
Man made Causes
1.Increased anthropogenic causes Man Made Causes () Forest destruction create a natural umbrella for the forest floor, as they reduce the green house effect of the atmosphere by absorbing the gases emitted by humans. In fact, forests use carbon dioxide (CO2.) For their growth. Therefore, due to the destruction of forests, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing.
(ii) Agricultural activities have also contributed to agricultural climate change. Today we are oriented towards modern farming rather than traditional farming. The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers is in agriculture. Plowing of submerged rice emits methane (CH4.). Ruminant animals also emit methane into the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect, resulting in climate change.
(iii) Fossil fuel exploitation of fossil fuel fuels has also increased the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide (NO2.). This anthropogenic emission has also caused the problem of climate change. Combustion of fossil-based fuels has increased the accumulation of greenhouse gases, while air and water pollution has also increased.
(iv) Urbanization and industrialization: The progressive increase in industrialization urbanization is one of the major reasons for anthropogenic climate change. By exploiting the darkness of nature, human is increasing industrialization and urbanization, which affects the climate in a big way. Combustion and and
Change in global environment
The terrestrial is divided into the following three classes
2. Global warming
Ozone is an important gas found in the stratosphere, which effectively protects the Earth from ultraviolet rays. This area of the ozone layer extends up to 60 km above the surface of the Earth, but the highest concentration of the ozone layer is found in the stratosphere between 12–35 km. This ozone layer is called Earth’s shield, because it absorbs the ultraviolet rays of solar radiation. 90% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays are absorbed in the ozone layer. In the absence of this gas layer, life of any kind cannot be possible in the biosphere, because in the absence of this ozone layer all the ultraviolet rays of solar radiation will reach the surface, due to which the surface temperature will be so high that the biosphere biological furnace (Biological Furnace). Joseph Furman first showed the direct effect of atmospheric ozone depletion over the year 1985 in Antarctica.
Due to ozone depletion
Ozone is also an air pollutant gas. The activity of ozone is higher than oxygen. Ozone degradation is caused by some specific gases. These gases break down the molecule of ozone (O3). These include chloro-fluoro carbon, halons, nitrous oxide, trichloroethylene, halogens etc. Whose description is as follows
(i) Chlorofluoro carbon, CFCs This is a very stable, non-flammable, non-toxic and safe gas to use. For this reason it is ideal for many industrial uses such as aerosols, air conditioners, refrigerators and firefighters. This gas remains active for a long time.
(ii) Halons It is structurally similar to chloro-fluoro, but it contains atoms of bromine in place of chlorine, which is even more dangerous to the ozone layer than chloro-fluoro carbon. Halons are used as Fire Extinguisher substances, as they do not harm people and equipment while extinguishing a fire.
(iii) Nitrous oxide released from nitrous oxide jets, fertilizers etc. also damages ozone.
(iv) Hydro-fluoro-carbon It was used as an alternative to chloro-fluoro carbon, although it is not fatal to the destruction of the ozone layer like chloro-fluoro carbon, but it also leads to the depletion of the ozone layer.
(v) Sulfate aerosols from natural volcanoes (industrial volcano) and industrial areas from factory chimneys (called Man Volcano) from sulfate aerosols dissolved in ozone to normal oxygen (CO, → 0, + 0) Decompose.
Effects of ozone depletion
Following are the effects of ozone depletion
(i) Human health: Increased ultraviolet rays increases the chances of getting skin cancer, cataract, skin wrinkles etc. In addition, exposure to ultraviolet radiation reduces the immunity of humans and nucleic acids are also destroyed, which increases the risk of infectious diseases.
(ii) Food production Ultraviolet rays affect the ability of plants to receive light during the process of photosynthesis, which reduces the nutrient content in plants and stops plant growth.
(ii) Terrestrial plant radiation also affects all functional and growth processes of plants. This changes the composition of species, due to which biodiversity is also affected. THE
(iv) Ultraviolet radiation in aquatic ecosystems damages the plankton. The reproduction period is shortened due to changes in ultraviolet radiation in the ju- plankton. Since phytoplankton is the base point of the food chain, the effect of ultraviolet radiation reduces the phytoplankton, affecting food chains.
(v) Bio-chemistry cycles due to change in temperature will have an effect on the processes of water vapor and precipitation due to which the aqueous cycles will be affected. Being affected in the aquatic cycle, the biosphere will also undergo changes in large-scale biogeochemical cycles, due to which, due to the disruption in the transmission of nutrients in the biological components of the biosphere ecosystem, the productivity of the ecosystem will decrease.
Global warming is increasing due to increasing concentration of greenhouse gases. Global warming began with industrialization, but its heating rate fluctuates. Absorb energy in global heating is reflected back as infrared rays, some of this radiation is absorbed by the atmospheric gases and thus the entire portion of the total energy is not returned to the space Reaches. Global heating is done by greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide, methane and carbon mono oxide gases, which causes the atmosphere to heat up.
Effects of global temperature
(i) Melting of ice: Due to global warming, melting of frozen ice and other glaciers at the poles adversely affects the environment and biodiversity. Melting of ice poses a dual problem. First there is a flood and later a drought situation arises. According to data from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), about 20 trillion tons of ice have melted between 2003 and 2008 from Antarctica, Greenland and Alaska.
(ii) The rise of sea level is the sub-effect created by melting of glaciers, because the melted snow eventually reaches the ocean through rivers, etc. and increases its water level. Between the years 1993 to 2003, sea level rise at the rate of 3 mm
(iii) Changes in ocean currents Due to global warming, the temperature, salinity and density of ocean water changes. This affects the speed, direction and size of ocean currents. When the current flow cycle of currents is interrupted, the process of global heat transfer will also be disrupted and the climate of coastal countries will also change.
(iv) Impact on distribution and biodiversity of castes. Each caste completes its life cycle by establishing adaptation to a specific type of environment, but the increase in global temperature may affect the geographical distribution of organisms, displacement of different castes. Can begin.
(5) Effect on food production. Due to increase in temperature, many diseases and pests in the plants, weeds and respiratory rate increase, due to which the production of crops is reduced. A 1 ° C rise in temperature could only reduce rice production in Southeast Asia by about 5%. Therefore, increase in carbon dioxide will increase the problem of food grains production all over the world.
(vi) Impact on human health will increase the outbreak of bacteria and viruses, because their activity will increase in high temperature, due to which the communication of diseases will start to increase, the diseases which are present in tropical regions also extend in temperate regions. It is possible . Dengue, malaria, plague, jaundice, respiratory and skin diseases will increase. The population displaced by the impact of climate change on human health will be called Environmental Migrants.
(vii) Impact on climate The rainfall in the sub-tropical zone has decreased by 0.3% per decade. Simultaneously extreme events; For example, the frequency of floods, droughts etc. may increase substantially.
Measures to control global warming
Following are the measures to control global warming
1.The secretion of green house gases, reduced use of fossil fuels and other sources of energy – wind energy, solar energy etc. should be increased. In addition, the vegetation area on the earth especially increase forests, due to which Co will be used in photosynthesis. Of
2.Reduce the use of nitrogenous fertilizers in farming, which will reduce NO emissions. Development of substituted substituents of chloro fluoro carbon. In addition to the above reduction methods, it is necessary to harmonize with local climate change.
Sulfur di-oxide (SO2.), Released from anthropogenic sources, reaches the atmosphere and combines with water to form sulfate and sulfuric acid (Sulfuric Acid, H2, SO2,). When this water, falling as rain reaches the surface surface, it is called acid rain. Angus Smith first used the term acid rain in 1858 AD. I did Acid rain is not limited to the areas of industrial and transport sources emitting sulfur dye-oxide and nitrogen oxide, but also affects areas that are far away from source areas, because the factors responsible for acid rain are pollutant gaseous. Are in the form, which are spread by air and cloud. for example ; Norway and Sweden receive extensive acid rain due to sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides extracted from mills in Germany and the United Kingdom.
Due to acid rain
The following are the major causes of acid rain
1• Both natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for acid rain, in which sulfur dioxide (SOS) and nitrogen oxides emitted due to burning of fossil fuels are mainly responsible.
2.Natural factors responsible for acid rain include volcano eruption, rotting of natural vegetation, and sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted from biological decomposition. In this way, these chemicals emitted from natural sources, combined with water and oxygen, spread over a large area of the earth with the help of air.
3.Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted from combustion of fossil fuels under anthropogenic factors are responsible for acid rain. Generally, two-thirds of sulfur dioxide and one-fourth of nitrogen oxide are emitted only by combustion of fossil fuels like coal. These gases are water, oxygen and other acidic compounds present in the atmosphere; For example, sulfuric acid reacts with ammonium nitrate and nitric acid. Again, these acidic compounds fall on the earth with the help of air in acid rain and other forms of precipitation.
Climate change in india
Effects of acid rain
Following are the effects of acid rain
(i) Vegetable acid rain dissolves the nutrients of the earth which plants need. It also dissolves toxins such as aluminum and mercury present in nature, which liberate and pollute water and poison plants.
(ii) Wildlife Acid rain also has far-reaching effects on wildlife. The adverse effect on the wild species disrupts the entire food chain and ultimately puts the entire ecosystem at risk. Different aquatic species can tolerate different levels of acidification.
(iii) Buildings Due to acid rain and dry acid depression there is loss of buildings, vehicles and other items of stone and metal. Acid causes extensive damage by scraping objects and destroying historical monuments. for example ; The Parthenan in Greece and the Taj Mahal in India have been affected by acid rain.
(iv) Human Health Water contaminated by acid rain does not directly harm humans. Excess of acidity in the soil is harmful for concentration crops. Fishes caught in such water can be harmful for human consumption. Acid, combined with other chemicals in the air, produces smog in the cities, causing breathing problems.
Measures to control acid rain
Following are the measures to control acid rain
1.Reducing the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere.
2.Adoption of low fossil fuels in power stations, vehicles and industries.
3.Complying with environmental regulations.
4.Evaluating the impact it has before setting up a large industry.
5.To make common people aware of environment.
Climate change in india
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